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              Simultaneous alleviation of Sb and Cd availability in contaminated soil and accumulation in Lolium multiflorum Lam. after amendment with Fe–Mn-modified biochar


              Simultaneous alleviation of Sb and Cd availability in contaminated soil and accumulation in Lolium multiflorum Lam. after amendment with Fe–Mn-modified biochar


              Abstract

              In this study, we assessed the capacities of biochar derived from tea branches (hereafter referred to as biochar) and Fe–Mn-modified biochar (MnFe2O4-biochar) to immobilize Sb and Cd in contaminated soils and reduce the bioavailability of Sb and Cd in Lolium multiflorum Lam.. The results of pot experiments indicated that the application of biochar and MnFe2O4-biochar significantly (P?<?0.05) improved the soil properties (e.g., pH, nutrient contents, organic content, and enzyme activity). Moreover, the concentrations of extractable Sb and Cd decreased significantly (P?<?0.05) with increasing addition of MnFe2O4-biochar, whereas biochar amendment only effectively reduced the extractable Cd content. Sequential extraction analysis demonstrated that the exchangeable Sb and Cd were transformed into less accessible forms, effectively reducing their toxicity, after addition of MnFe2O4-biochar. Finally, amendment with MnFe2O4-biochar significantly (P?<?0.05) decreased the accumulation of both Sb and Cd in Lolium multiflorum Lam., subsequently reducing their phytotoxicity. Our findings suggest that MnFe2O4-biochar may be used for the low-cost, effective, and eco-friendly passivation of Sb and Cd in co-contaminated soil.



              Highlights

               

              First study on Fe–Mn-modified biochar for enhanced Sb and Cd immobilization in soil.

              Fe–Mn-modified biochar amendments simultaneously reduced Sb and Cd bioavailability.

              The addition of Fe–Mn-modified biochar enhances soil properties.

              Fe–Mn-modified biochar converts more accessible Sb/Cd into less accessible forms.

               

              a
              Institute of Environment, Resource, Soil, and Fertilizer, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, 310021, PR China
              b
              Engineering Research Center of Biochar of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, 310021, PR China
              c
              College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, 321004, PR China
              d
              College of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014, PR China
              e
              College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014, PR China


              多花黑麦草(Lolium multiflorum Lamk.)一年生,越年生或短期多年生。秆直立,具4-5节,较细弱至粗壮。叶鞘疏松;叶舌长达4毫米;叶片扁平,无毛,上面微粗糙。穗形总状花序直立或弯曲;穗轴柔软,节间无毛,上面微粗糙;小穗含小花;轴节间平滑无毛;颖披针形,质地较硬;外稃长圆状披针形,具5脉,顶端膜质透明,具长约5 (-15)毫米之细芒,或上部小花无芒;脊上具纤毛。颖果长圆形,长为宽的3倍?;ü?-8月。中国新疆、陕西、河北、湖南、贵州、云南、四川、江西等省区均有生长或生产,大多作优良牧草普遍引种栽培。分布于非洲、欧洲、西南亚洲,引入世界各地种植。(引自百度百科)



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